^ Mooney, Chris; Mufson, Steven (19 December 2017). "Why the bitcoin craze is using up so much energy". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018. several experts told The Washington Post that bitcoin probably uses as much as 1 to 4 gigawatts, or billion watts, of electricity, roughly the output of one to three nuclear reactors.

Here’s a thought, the uses and advantages of blockchain technology can be used to create a real life country. Be a cyber revolutionary if you will. The events in Spain and Catalonia offers a very rare and perishable opportunity for the blockchain community to help the people of Catalonia to have a peaceful revolution. I am new to this but i can see that you could create a real life country function on blockchain technology. The advantages of blockchain tech can be used by the people of Catalonia to secede from Spain where it matters most: information, finance and governance. Blockchain proponents should descend on Catalonia and help them adopt their own blockchain based currency, dump the euro, and be the center of the blockchain universe. With this, significant impact can be had on the European economy enough for the whole of Europe and the world to take heed instead of just making political noise. The people of Catalonia should put their money where their mouth is. They should adopt a decentralized blockchain based currency and gain instant global recognition. Political recognition as an independent state can and is usually had through revolution, mostly the violent sort. But if the independent state of Catalonia will take control of its economy first by adopting blockchain currency, its economic standing in the world, albeit miniscule in terms of dollars and cents, will be cemented. This is especially when the whole world is looking at blockchain tech and its real-life applications. Political recognition will follow economic recognition. Look at Hongkong.
For example, Ethereum (CCY: ETH-USD), which has a nearly $116 billion market cap and is the second-largest cryptocurrency behind bitcoin, currently has 200 organizations testing a version of its blockchain technology. Yes, traditional banks are testing out Ethereum's blockchain, but so are companies in the technology and energy industries. Integrated oil and gas giant BP (NYSE:BP) envisions using a version of Ethereum's blockchain to aid it with energy futures trading. If these transactions were to settle faster, BP could presumably improve its margin. 
What is the IoT? The network-controlled management of certain types of electronic devices — for instance, the monitoring of air temperature in a storage facility. Smart contracts make the automation of remote systems management possible. A combination of software, sensors, and the network facilitates an exchange of data between objects and mechanisms. The result increases system efficiency and improves cost monitoring.
The use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and the media.[217] In the United States, the FBI prepared an intelligence assessment,[218] the SEC issued a pointed warning about investment schemes using virtual currencies,[217] and the U.S. Senate held a hearing on virtual currencies in November 2013.[219] The U.S. government claimed that bitcoin was used to facilitate payments related to Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[220]
Bitcoin is pseudonymous, meaning that funds are not tied to real-world entities but rather bitcoin addresses. Owners of bitcoin addresses are not explicitly identified, but all transactions on the blockchain are public. In addition, transactions can be linked to individuals and companies through "idioms of use" (e.g., transactions that spend coins from multiple inputs indicate that the inputs may have a common owner) and corroborating public transaction data with known information on owners of certain addresses.[115] Additionally, bitcoin exchanges, where bitcoins are traded for traditional currencies, may be required by law to collect personal information.[116] To heighten financial privacy, a new bitcoin address can be generated for each transaction.[117]

Located in Brooklyn, Consensys is one of the foremost companies globally that is developing a range of applications for Ethereum. One project they are partnering on is Transactive Grid, working with the distributed energy outfit, LO3. A prototype project currently up and running uses Ethereum smart contracts to automate the monitoring and redistribution of microgrid energy. This so-called “intelligent grid” is an early example of IoT functionality.
Earning bitcoin in exchange for goods and services is just as feasible an option as mining or investing in the digital currency. There are businesses that allow people to earn bitcoin in exchange for services, including some freelance job listing sites where people are paid in bitcoin, as well as businesses accumulate bitcoin by accepting it as a payment method.
Wallets and similar software technically handle all bitcoins as equivalent, establishing the basic level of fungibility. Researchers have pointed out that the history of each bitcoin is registered and publicly available in the blockchain ledger, and that some users may refuse to accept bitcoins coming from controversial transactions, which would harm bitcoin's fungibility.[118]
Wallets and similar software technically handle all bitcoins as equivalent, establishing the basic level of fungibility. Researchers have pointed out that the history of each bitcoin is registered and publicly available in the blockchain ledger, and that some users may refuse to accept bitcoins coming from controversial transactions, which would harm bitcoin's fungibility.[118]

The good news: No advanced math or computation is involved. You may have heard that miners are solving difficult mathematical problems--that's not true at all. What they're actually doing is trying to be the first miner to come up with a 64-digit hexadecimal number (a "hash") that is less than or equal to the target hash. It's basically guess work.
Nobody owns the Bitcoin network much like no one owns the technology behind email or the Internet. Bitcoin transactions are verified by Bitcoin miners which has an entire industry and Bitcoin cloud mining options. While developers are improving the software they cannot force a change in the Bitcoin protocol because all users are free to choose what software and version they use.

When the algorithm was created under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto—which in Japanese is as common a name as Steve Smith—the individual(s) set a finite limit on the number of bitcoins that will ever exist: 21 million. Currently, more than 12 million are in circulation. That means that a little less than 9 million bitcoins are waiting to be discovered.


Bitcoin is a perfect case study for the possible inefficiencies of blockchain. Bitcoin’s “proof of work” system takes about ten minutes to add a new block to the blockchain. At that rate, it’s estimated that the blockchain network can only manage seven transactions per second (TPS). Although other cryptocurrencies like Ethereum (20 TPS) and Bitcoin Cash (60 TPS) perform better than bitcoin, they are still limited by blockchain. Legacy brand Visa, for context, can process 24,000 TPS.
In the proof of work system, computers must “prove” that they have done “work” by solving a complex computational math problem. If a computer solves one of these problems, they become eligible to add a block to the blockchain. But the process of adding blocks to the blockchain, what the cryptocurrency world calls “mining,” is not easy. In fact, according to the blockchain news site BlockExplorer, the odds of solving one of these problems on the Bitcoin network were about 1 in 5.8 trillion in February 2019. To solve complex math problems at those odds, computers must run programs that cost them significant amounts of power and energy (read: money).
The reward is not the the only incentive for miners to keep running their hardware. They also get the transaction fees that Bitcoin users pay. Currently, as there is a huge amount of transactions happening within the Bitcoin network, the transaction fees have skyrocketed. Even though the fees are voluntary on the part of the sender, miners will always prioritize transfers with higher transaction fees. So, unless you are willing to pay a rather high fee, your transaction might take a very long time to be processed.
Alice wants to use her Bitcoin to buy pizza from Bob. She’d send him her private “key,” a private sequence of letters and numbers, which contains her source transaction of the coins, amount, and Bob’s digital wallet address. That “address” would be another, this time, the public sequence of letters and numbers. Bob scans the “key” with his smartphone to decode it. At the same time, Alice’s transaction is broadcast to all the other network participants (called “nodes”) on her ledger, and, approximately, ten minutes later, is confirmed, through a process of certain technical and business rules called “mining.” This “mining” process gives Bob a score to know whether or not to proceed with Alice’s transaction.
Every 2,016 blocks (approximately 14 days at roughly 10 min per block), the difficulty target is adjusted based on the network's recent performance, with the aim of keeping the average time between new blocks at ten minutes. In this way the system automatically adapts to the total amount of mining power on the network.[3]:ch. 8 Between 1 March 2014 and 1 March 2015, the average number of nonces miners had to try before creating a new block increased from 16.4 quintillion to 200.5 quintillion.[84]
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